A general term applied to igneous rocks such as basalt and rhyolite, that erupted from the earth by volcanic action.
Lead spacers in solid horizontal joints to support the top stones until the mortar has set.
A tapered head wedged in a tapered recess in stone for hanging soffit stones.
Holes in cut stones for lifting and support during the setting of cut stones and sometimes for permanent support. Holes are checked for the particular lewis (lifting device or hook) to be used.
A sedimentary rock composed of calcium carbonate; includes many varieties. (See oolitic limestone; dolomitic limestone; crystalline limestone).
Structurally sound sections of marble that are cemented to the back of marble veneer slabs to give greater strength, additional bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
A stone beam or horizontal member spanning the top of an opening, such as a doorway or window, and supporting the wall above it.
A condition when one edge of a stone is higher than the adjacent edge.
A stone sill set into the jambs on each side of a masonry opening.