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Stone Glossary

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Term Definition
Wall Plate

A horizontal member anchored to a masonry wall to which other structural elements may be attached; also called head plate.

Wall Tie

A bonder or metal piece which connects wythes of masonry to each other or to other materials

Wall Tie, Cavity

A rigid, corrosion-resistant metal tie which bonds two wythes of a cavity wall. It is usually steel, 3/16" in diameter, and formed in a "Z" shape or a rectangle.


Bearing - A wall supporting a vertical load in addition to its own weight. Cavity - A wall in which the inner and outer wythes are separated by an air space, but united by metal ties. Composite - A wall in which the facing and backing are of different materials but which are united together with bond stones to exert a common reaction under load. Veneer or Faced - A wall in which a thin facing and a backing are of different materials, but not so bonded as to exert a common reaction under load.


Generally a condition experienced only in flagging or flagstone materials; very common with flagstone materials that are taken from the ground and used in their natural state. To eliminate warping in such stones, it would be necessary to further finish the material, whether by machining, sand rubbing, honing, or polishing.


A sloped area or the area water will run over.

Water Bar

Typically a strip in the bottom of a door sill serving as a baffle to the entrance of water.

Water Table

A projection of lower masonry on the outside of the wall slightly above the ground. Often a damp course is placed at the level of the water table to prevent upward penetration of ground water.


An expression used in the marble finishing trade to indicate the filling of natural voids with color blended material.


Splitting of stone by driving wedges into planes of weakness.

Weep Holes

Openings placed in mortar joints of facing material at the level of flashing to permit the escape of moisture.


(Wined) - A twisting warp from cutting slabs in the gang saws.

Wire Saw

A method of cutting stone by passing a twisted, multi-strand wire across the stone, and immersing the wire in a slurry of abrasive material.


The inner or outer part of a cavity wall.

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